Questionnaire for Mechanized Collection Prunings
Field data (Each questionnaire refers to one crop species cultivated per field)
Municipality :
Sabina

Latitude :
42.430123

Longitude :
12.876370


Field Size (ha)
0.49

Crop Species
olives
vineyards
apples
pears

peaches
apricot
nectarine
plum

cherries
oranges
tangerines
lemons

grapefruit
hazelnuts
chestnuts
almonds


Age of crop
80

Width between cultivated rows (m)
11

Distance between trees (m)
11



Crop form


Crop forms for Olive

Ancient olives

Vase (1 stem)

Vase (2-3 stems from soil)


Bush (intensive 250-600 trees/ha)

Superintensive (>1500 trees/ha)



Slope (%)

10



Soil Cover

Bare.No grass cover.
Tillage several times per year

Seasonal occurence.
Herbicides+mowing <50% soil cover

>50% grass cover.
Mowed several times per year

100% Grass cover.
Mowed several times per year

Pruning Operations Performed
Type of pruning
Maintenance
Grafting

Structuring
Topping

Removal of old branches
Blooming



Pruning Method
Only manually
Mechanised pre-pruning + manual

Fully mechanised


Frequency of pruningCheck as many as apply
annual
biannual
biennial
Once per years

Mechanized Collection
Preparation of the field prior to harvesting

No preparation - prunings were left on the soil as they fall from tree

Centre-operatos position prunings on the center of the lane between tree rows

Centre alligned-operators position prunings in a specific position in center
(e.g. alligned with the direction of the row)

Previous windrowing-a tractor with windrower is used prior pruning harvester

Integrated windrower to the pruning machine


Harvesting methodsCheck according to the figures below the harvesting method that is used for the pruning biomass

Manual cross-cutting of firewood+gathering at field side

Forestry chipper towed by tractor + manual feeding

Hauling the branches + shredding/chipping at field side

Hauling the branches + baling at field side

Harvest with mulcher/chipper in front

Harvest with mulcher/chipper at rear

Harvest with rear mulcher/chipper and bin

Harvest with rear mulcher/chipper and big-bags

Automotive shredder/chipper with rear trailer

Harvest with standard hay baler

Harvest with rear baler prepare for wood or tree branches

Pre-pruning integrated with collection and mulching/chipping

Pre-pruning integrated with collection and mulching/chipping in an automotive machine



Type of pruning treatment and model of machinerySpecify the method that prunings are treated based on the outcome product and manufacturer-model of each machinery (windrower,mulcher,chipper,baler) that is used if applicable

Windrower-Machines that allign biomass in a row



Windrower (manufacturer-model)


Mulcher-big pieces. Machines that break the branches in big pieces.
Normally they are an evolution from the typical muchers/cruchers utilised to leave
the branches on the soil in pieces.

Mulcher (manufacturer-model)


Shredder - Produce finer material (hammers or hammers with a knive.Do not produce a clear cut)



Shredder (manufacturer-model) Haychopper Gallignani P120


Chipper - Clean cut. Resembles the typical form of forest woodchips



Chipper (manufacturer-model)


Round bale

Baler (manufacturer-model)


Squared bale

Baler (manufacturer-model)


Processes SpecificationsSpecify the specifications of the processes (manpower,gross working time, productivity, fuel consumption)

Check as many as apply
Processes
Manpower
(Nr of persons)
Gross working time
(hr/ha)a
Productivity
(t/ha or t/hr)
Fuel consumption
(l/hr)

Manual Alignment

 
 
 
 

Windrowing

 
 
 
 

Integrated harvesting/treatment

 
 
 
 

Hauling

 
 
 
 

Treatment at field side

 1
 3
 345 t/ha
 

Disposal/dumping of biomass

 
 
 
 



End product propertiesSpecify the properties (moisture,bulk density,particle size,ash) of the prunings after treatment and harvesting, if known

Moisture (% a.r.)
 37
Particle size (cm)
 5mm

Bulk density (kg/m3)
 
Ash content (% dry basis)
 


Losses of biomass after harvesting
(%)
 9.1
or (tonnes/ha)
 
Contact Data
Name :
Dr. Luigi Pari

Email :
lpari@ingegneriaagraria.it

Profession :

Country :
Italy


References-External links:Provide references on which the information is based on or highlight any comments

Dr. Luigi Pari, Ing. Maurizio Cutini, DEVELOPING OF A PRUNINGHARVESTING MACHINERY, 12th European Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, 17-21 June 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 

This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 691748